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Highlights •Liver BHB concentration is low in human AH, and reducing BHB in mice worsens liver injury after alcohol. •BHB supplementation reduced alcohol induced liver injury in wild-type but not Hcar2 deficient mice. •BHB supplementation increased IL-10 levels and increased the M2 macrophage phenotype. •Development of the M2 phenotype is dependent on reduction of mitochondrial…

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Butyrate is a short chain fatty acid derived from the microbial fermentation of dietary fibers in the colon. In the last decade, multiple beneficial effects of butyrate at intestinal and extraintestinal level have been demonstrated. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different and many of these involve an epigenetic regulation of gene expression through…

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Neuropilin is a transmembrane receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and is expressed in normal endothelial cells and upregulated in cancer cells. Neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) has been shown to promote tumour cell migration and survival in colon cancer in response to VEGF binding. The expression profiles of neuropilins, associated co-receptors and known ligands have been…

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Butyrate, the four-carbon fatty acid, is formed in the human colon by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (including dietary fiber), and putatively suppresses colorectal cancer (CRC). Butyrate has diverse and apparently paradoxical effects on cellular proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation that may be either pro-neoplastic or anti-neoplastic, depending upon factors such as the level of exposure, availability…

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In the present work, we studied the molecular mechanisms by which sodium butyrate sensitizes cancer cells towards cisplatin. HeLa cells were treated with 5 mM butyrate, with 8 μM cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cisplatin), or with both. Cells treated with both agents showed approximately two-fold increase of the mortality rate in comparison with cells treated with cisplatin…

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Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by the colonic bacterial fermentation is able to induce cell growth inhibition and differentiation in colon cancer cells at least partially through its capacity to inhibit histone deacetylases. Since butyrate is expected to impact cellular metabolic pathways in colon cancer cells, we hypothesize that it could exert its antiproliferative…

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The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility….

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Butyrate exerts potent effects on a variety of colonic mucosal functions such as inhibition of inflammation and carcinogenesis, reinforcing various components of the colonic defence barrier and decreasing oxidative stress. In addition, butyrate may promote satiety. Two important mechanisms include the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B activation and histone deacetylation. However, the observed effects…